Data visualization is a powerful tool that helps businesses make sense of complex information and present it in a clear and concise manner. Graphs and charts are widely used to represent data visually, allowing for better understanding and ...Complexity Analysis: Time Complexity: O(2^V), The time complexity is exponential. Given a source and destination, the source and destination nodes are going to be in every path. Depending upon edges, taking the worst case where every node has a directed edge to every other node, there can be at max 2^V different paths possible in …The correct answer is option 4. Concept: A minimum spanning tree (MST) or minimum weight spanning tree is a subset of the edges(V – 1 ) of a connected, edge-weighted undirected graph G(V, E) that connects all the vertices together, without any cycles and with the minimum possible total edge weight.Apr 16, 2019 · Here are some definitions that we use. A self-loop is an edge that connects a vertex to itself. Two edges are parallel if they connect the same pair of vertices. When an edge connects two vertices, we say that the vertices are adjacent to one another and that the edge is incident on both vertices. 17. We can use some group theory to count the number of cycles of the graph Kk K k with n n vertices. First note that the symmetric group Sk S k acts on the complete graph by permuting its vertices. It's clear that you can send any n n -cycle to any other n n -cycle via this action, so we say that Sk S k acts transitively on the n n -cycles.The adjacency matrix of a complete graph contains all ones except along the diagonal where there are only zeros. The adjacency matrix of an empty graph is a zero matrix. Properties Spectrum. The adjacency matrix of an undirected simple graph is symmetric, and therefore has a complete set of real eigenvalues and an orthogonal eigenvector basis.What Is the Difference Between a Directed and an Undirected Graph | Baeldung on Computer Science. Last updated: November 24, 2022. Written by: baeldung. Data Structures. Graphs. 1. …A simple directed graph. A directed complete graph with loops. An undirected graph with loops. A directed complete graph. A simple complete undirected graph. Assuming the same social network as described above, how many edges would there be in the graph representation of the network when the network has 40 participants? 780. 1600. 20. 40. …Mar 7, 2023 · Connected Components for undirected graph using DFS: Finding connected components for an undirected graph is an easier task. The idea is to. Do either BFS or DFS starting from every unvisited vertex, and we get all strongly connected components. Follow the steps mentioned below to implement the idea using DFS: Jan 21, 2014 · Q: Sum of degrees of all vertices is even. Neither P nor Q. Both P and Q. Q only. P only. GATE CS 2013 Top MCQs on Graph Theory in Mathematics. Discuss it. Question 3. The line graph L (G) of a simple graph G is defined as follows: · There is exactly one vertex v (e) in L (G) for each edge e in G. Questions & Help. I would like to build a complete undirected graph, and I'm wondering if there is any built-in method for doing so. What really needs to be done here is the creation of the edge_index.. What I've done so …Graph-theoretic terms. • graph, node set, edge set, edge list. • undirected graph, directed graph. • adjacent, incident, empty, complete. • subgraph, generated ...Subgraph Isomorphism Problem: We have two undirected graphs G 1 and G 2.The problem is to check whether G 1 is isomorphic to a subgraph of G 2.. Graph Isomorphism: Two graphs A and B are isomorphic to each other if they have the same number of vertices and edges, and the edge connectivity is retained. There is a bijection …The correct answer is option 2. Concept: A minimum spanning tree (MST) or minimum weight spanning tree is a subset of the edges(V – 1 ) of a connected, edge-weighted undirected graph G(V, E) that connects all the vertices together, without any cycles and with the minimum possible total edge weight.In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete graph is a simple undirected graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a unique edge. A complete digraph is a directed graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a pair of unique edges (one in each direction). [1] In the maximum independent set problem, the input is an undirected graph, and the output is a maximum independent set in the graph. ... given an undirected graph, how many independent sets it contains. This problem is intractable, namely, it is ♯P-complete, already on graphs with maximal degree three. It is further known that, ...Directed vs Undirected Undirected Graphs. An Undirected Graph is a graph where each edge is undirected or bi-directional. This means that the undirected graph does not move in any direction. For example, in the graph below, Node C is connected to Node A, Node E and Node B. There are no “directions” given to point to specific vertices.2. To be a complete graph: The number of edges in the graph must be N (N-1)/2. Each vertice must be connected to exactly N-1 other vertices. Time Complexity to check second condition : O (N^2) Use this approach for second condition check: for i in 1 to N-1 for j in i+1 to N if i is not connected to j return FALSE return TRUE.3. Well the problem of finding a k-vertex subgraph in a graph of size n is of complexity. O (n^k k^2) Since there are n^k subgraphs to check and each of them have k^2 edges. What you are asking for, finding all subgraphs in a graph is a NP-complete problem and is explained in the Bron-Kerbosch algorithm listed above. Share.Jul 21, 2016 · The exact questions states the following: Suppose that a complete undirected graph $G = (V,E)$ with at least 3 vertices has cost function $c$ that satisfies the ... Oct 12, 2023 · A graph in which each graph edge is replaced by a directed graph edge, also called a digraph. A directed graph having no multiple edges or loops (corresponding to a binary adjacency matrix with 0s on the diagonal) is called a simple directed graph. A complete graph in which each edge is bidirected is called a complete directed graph. A directed graph having no symmetric pair of directed edges ... In today’s digital world, presentations have become an integral part of communication. Whether you are a student, a business professional, or a researcher, visual aids play a crucial role in conveying your message effectively. One of the mo...A three-dimensional hypercube graph showing a Hamiltonian path in red, and a longest induced path in bold black.. In graph theory, a path in a graph is a finite or infinite sequence of edges which joins a sequence of vertices which, by most definitions, are all distinct (and since the vertices are distinct, so are the edges). A directed path (sometimes called …Given a directed graph, find out if a vertex j is reachable from another vertex i for all vertex pairs (i, j) in the given graph. Here reachable mean that there is a path from vertex i to j. The reach-ability matrix is called the transitive closure of a graph. For example, consider below graph. Transitive closure of above graphs is 1 1 1 1 1 1 ...The above graph is complete because, i. It has no loups. ii. It has no multiple edges. iii. Each vertex is edges with each of the remaining vertices by a single edge. Since there are 5 vertices, V1,V2V3V4V5 ∴ m = 5 V 1, V 2 V 3 V 4 V 5 ∴ m = 5. Number of edges = m(m−1) 2 = 5(5−1) 2 = 10 m ( m − 1) 2 = 5 ( 5 − 1) 2 = 10.Graph definition. Any shape that has 2 or more vertices/nodes connected together with a line/edge/path is called an undirected graph. Below is the example of an undirected graph: Undirected graph with 10 or 11 edges. Vertices are the result of two or more lines intersecting at a point.•• Let Let GG be an undirected graph, be an undirected graph, vv VV a vertex. a vertex. • The degree of v, deg(v), is its number of incident edges. (Except that any self-loops are counted twice.) • A vertex with degree 0 is called isolated. • A vertex of degree 1 is called pendant.connected. Given a connected, undirected graph, we might want to identify a subset of the edges that form a tree, while “touching” all the vertices. We call such a tree a spanning tree. Deﬁnition 18.1. For a connected undirected graph G = (V;E), a spanning tree is a tree T = (V;E 0) with E E.We found three spanning trees off one complete graph. A complete undirected graph can have maximum n n-2 number of spanning trees, where n is the number of nodes. In the above addressed example, n is 3, hence 3 3−2 = 3 spanning trees are possible. General Properties of Spanning Tree. We now understand that one graph can have more than one ...The n vertex graph with the maximal number of edges that is still disconnected is a Kn−1. a complete graph Kn−1 with n−1 vertices has (n−1)/2edges, so (n−1)(n−2)/2 edges. Adding any possible edge must connect the graph, so the minimum number of edges needed to guarantee connectivity for an n vertex graph is ((n−1)(n−2)/2) + 1Jan 24, 2023 · Approach: We will import the required module networkx. Then we will create a graph object using networkx.complete_graph (n). Where n specifies n number of nodes. For realizing graph, we will use networkx.draw (G, node_color = ’green’, node_size=1500) The node_color and node_size arguments specify the color and size of graph nodes. Theorem 23.0.5 Hamiltonian cycle problem for undirected graphs is NP-complete Proof : The problem is in NP; proof left as exercise Hardness proved by reducing Directed Hamiltonian Cycle to this problem 23.0.0.16 Reduction Sketch Goal: Given directed graph G, need to construct undirected graph G0 such that G has Hamiltonian Path i G0 has ... Undirected Graph. The undirected graph is also referred to as the bidirectional. It is a set of objects (also called vertices or nodes), which are connected together. Here the edges will be bidirectional. The two nodes are connected with a line, and this line is known as an edge. The undirected graph will be represented as G = (N, E). A clique is a collection of vertices in an undirected graph G such that every two different vertices in the clique are nearby, implying that the induced subgraph is complete. Cliques are a fundamental topic in graph theory and are employed in many other mathematical problems and graph creations. Despite the fact that the goal of …A complete undirected graph can have n n-2 number of spanning trees where n is the number of vertices in the graph. Suppose, if n = 5 , the number of maximum possible spanning trees would be 5 5-2 = 125.It is denoted by K n.A complete graph with n vertices will have edges. Example: Draw Undirected Complete Graphs k 4 and k 6. Solution: The undirected complete graph of k 4 is shown in fig1 and that of k 6 is shown in fig2. 6. Connected and Disconnected Graph: Connected Graph: A graph is called connected if there is a path from any vertex u to v ...An undirected graph G is called connected if there is a path between every pair of distinct vertices of G.For example, the currently displayed graph is not a connected graph. An undirected graph C is called a connected component of the undirected graph G if: 1). C is a subgraph of G; 2). C is connected; 3). no connected subgraph of G has C as a …The exact questions states the following: Suppose that a complete undirected graph $G = (V,E)$ with at least 3 vertices has cost function $c$ that satisfies the ...G is an unweighted, undirected graph. Then, I cannot prove that [deciding whether G has a path of length greater than k] is NP-Complete. ... Find shortest path in undirected complete n-partite graph that visits each partition exactly once. 2. NP-completeness of undirected planar graph problem. 0.... (undirected, simple) graph. • n := |V | is its number of vertices. • m := |E| is ... In particular, the complete bipartite graph Km,n is a complete 2-partite graph ...Apr 23, 2014 at 2:51. You could imagine that an undirected graph is a directed graph (both way). The improvement is exponential. If you assume average degree is k, distance is L. Then one way search is roughly k^L, while two way search is roughly 2 * K^ (L/2) – Mingtao Zhang. Apr 23, 2014 at 2:55.I can see why you would think that. For n=5 (say a,b,c,d,e) there are in fact n! unique permutations of those letters. However, the number of cycles of a graph is different from the number of permutations in a string, because of duplicates -- there are many different permutations that generate the same identical cycle. Undirected Graph. Directed Graph. 1. It is simple to understand and manipulate. It provides a clear representation of relationships with direction. 2. It has the symmetry of a relationship. It offers efficient traversal in the specified direction. 3.A graph data structure is made up of a finite and potentially mutable set of vertices (also known as nodes or points), as well as a set of unordered pairs for an undirected graph or a set of ordered pairs for a directed graph. These pairs are recognized as edges, links, or lines in a directed graph but are also known as arrows or arcs.A complete graph is a graph in which each pair of graph vertices is connected by an edge. The complete graph with graph vertices is denoted and has (the triangular numbers) undirected edges, where is a binomial coefficient. In older literature, complete graphs are sometimes called universal graphs.Subgraph Isomorphism Problem: We have two undirected graphs G 1 and G 2.The problem is to check whether G 1 is isomorphic to a subgraph of G 2.. Graph Isomorphism: Two graphs A and B are isomorphic to each other if they have the same number of vertices and edges, and the edge connectivity is retained. There is a bijection …Since the graph is complete, any permutation starting with a fixed vertex gives an (almost) unique cycle (the last vertex in the permutation will have an edge back to the first, fixed vertex. Except for one thing: if you visit the vertices in the cycle in reverse order, then that's really the same cycle (because of this, the number is half of ...A graph in which each vertex is connected to every other vertex is called a complete graph. Note that degree of each vertex will be n−1, where n is the ...This set of Discrete Mathematics Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Spanning Trees”. 1. Spanning trees have a special class of depth-first search trees named _________ a) Euclidean minimum spanning trees b) Tremaux trees c) Complete bipartite graphs d) Decision trees 2.graph objects represent undirected graphs, which have direction-less edges connecting the nodes. After you create a graph object, you can learn more about the graph by using object functions to perform queries against the object. ... Create a symmetric adjacency matrix, A, that creates a complete graph of order 4. Use a logical adjacency matrix ...Undirected Graph. The undirected graph is also referred to as the bidirectional. It is a set of objects (also called vertices or nodes), which are connected together. Here the edges will be bidirectional. The two nodes are connected with a line, and this line is known as an edge. The undirected graph will be represented as G = (N, E). Graph theory is the study of mathematical objects known as graphs, which consist of vertices (or nodes) connected by edges. (In the figure below, the vertices are the numbered circles, and the edges join the vertices.) A basic graph of 3-Cycle. Any scenario in which one wishes to examine the structure of a network of connected objects is potentially a …Proof: Recall that Hamiltonian Cycle (HC) is NP-complete (Sipser). The deﬁnition of HC is as follows. Input: an undirected (not necessarily complete) graph G = (V,E). Output: YES if G has a Hamiltonian cycle (or tour, as deﬁned above), NO otherwise. Suppose A is a k-approximation algorithm for TSP. We will use A to solve HC in polynomial time,Given an undirected complete graph of N vertices where N > 2. The task is to find the number of different Hamiltonian cycle of the graph. Complete Graph: A graph is said to be complete if each possible vertices is connected through an Edge. Hamiltonian Cycle: It is a closed walk such that each vertex is visited at most once except the initial …The correct answer is option 2. Concept: A minimum spanning tree (MST) or minimum weight spanning tree is a subset of the edges(V – 1 ) of a connected, edge-weighted undirected graph G(V, E) that connects all the vertices together, without any cycles and with the minimum possible total edge weight.Complete directed graphs are simple directed graphs where each pair of vertices is joined by a symmetric pair of directed arcs (it is equivalent to an undirected complete graph with the edges replaced by pairs of inverse arcs). It follows that a complete digraph is symmetric.To the right is K5, the complete (un-directed) graph of 5 nodes. A complete directed graph of n nodes has n(n–1) edges, since from each node there is a directed edge to each of the others. You can change this complete directed graph into a complete undirected graph by replacing the two directed edges between two nodes by a single undirected edge.The correct answer is option 2. Concept: A minimum spanning tree (MST) or minimum weight spanning tree is a subset of the edges(V – 1 ) of a connected, edge-weighted undirected graph G(V, E) that connects all the vertices together, without any cycles and with the minimum possible total edge weight.1. Complete Graphs – A simple graph of vertices having exactly one edge between each pair of vertices is called a complete graph. A complete graph of vertices is denoted by . Total number of edges are n* (n-1)/2 with n vertices in complete graph. 2. Cycles – Cycles are simple graphs with vertices and edges .In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete graph is a simple undirected graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a unique edge. A complete digraph is a directed graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a pair of unique edges (one in each direction). [1] Math. Advanced Math. Advanced Math questions and answers. Let G = (V, E) be a complete undirected graph where the edge lengths w (e) for every e elementof E are elements of {1, 2}. This graph satisfies clearly the triangle inequality. Give a 4/3 factor approximation algorithm for TSP in this special class of graphs.Given an undirected complete graph of N vertices where N > 2. The task is to find the number of different Hamiltonian cycle of the graph. Complete Graph: A graph is said to be complete if each possible vertices is connected through an Edge.A graph data structure is made up of a finite and potentially mutable set of vertices (also known as nodes or points), as well as a set of unordered pairs for an undirected graph or a set of ordered pairs for a directed graph. These pairs are recognized as edges, links, or lines in a directed graph but are also known as arrows or arcs.Apr 16, 2019 · Here are some definitions that we use. A self-loop is an edge that connects a vertex to itself. Two edges are parallel if they connect the same pair of vertices. When an edge connects two vertices, we say that the vertices are adjacent to one another and that the edge is incident on both vertices. Oct 4, 2018 · Solution: As edge weights are unique, there will be only one edge emin and that will be added to MST, therefore option (A) is always true. As spanning tree has minimum number of edges, removal of any edge will disconnect the graph. Therefore, option (B) is also true. As all edge weights are distinct, G will have a unique minimum spanning tree. A graph is connected if there is a path from every vertex to every other vertex in the graph A graph that is not connected consists of a set of con-nected components, which are maximal connected sub-graphs path of length 4 vertex edge …Yes. If you have a complete graph, the simplest algorithm is to enumerate all triangles and check whether each one satisfies the inequality. In practice, this will also likely be the best solution unless your graphs are very large and you need the …In today’s data-driven world, businesses are constantly gathering and analyzing vast amounts of information to gain valuable insights. However, raw data alone is often difficult to comprehend and extract meaningful conclusions from. This is...In the case of the bipartite graph , we have two vertex sets and each edge has one endpoint in each of the vertex sets. Therefore, all the vertices can be colored using different colors and no two adjacent nodes will have the same color. In an undirected bipartite graph, the degree of each vertex partition set is always equal.A complete graph with n vertices is often denoted K n. ... A tree is an undirected graph that is both connected and acyclic, or a directed graph in which there exists a unique walk from one vertex (the root of the tree) to all remaining vertices. 2.A graph in which each vertex is connected to every other vertex is called a complete graph. Note that degree of each vertex will be n−1, where n is the ...Jan 21, 2014 · Q: Sum of degrees of all vertices is even. Neither P nor Q. Both P and Q. Q only. P only. GATE CS 2013 Top MCQs on Graph Theory in Mathematics. Discuss it. Question 3. The line graph L (G) of a simple graph G is defined as follows: · There is exactly one vertex v (e) in L (G) for each edge e in G. 2. In the graph given in question 1, what is the minimum possible weight of a path P from vertex 1 to vertex 2 in this graph such that P contains at most 3 edges? (A) 7 (B) 8 (C) 9 (D) 10. Answer (B) Path: 1 -> 0 -> 4 -> 2 Weight: 1 + 4 + 3. 3. The degree sequence of a simple graph is the sequence of the degrees of the nodes in the graph in ...It is denoted by K n.A complete graph with n vertices will have edges. Example: Draw Undirected Complete Graphs k 4 and k 6. Solution: The undirected complete graph of k 4 is shown in fig1 and that of k 6 is shown in fig2. 6. Connected and Disconnected Graph: Connected Graph: A graph is called connected if there is a path from any vertex u to v ...A common tool for visualizing equivalence classes of DAGs are completed partially directed acyclic graphs (CPDAG). A partially directed acyclic graph (PDAG) is a graph where some edges are directed and some are undirected and one cannot trace a cycle by following the direction of directed edges and any direction for undirected edges.A graph is called simple if it has no multiple edges or loops. (The graphs in Figures 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5 are simple, but the graphs in Example 2.1 and Figure 2.2 are not simple.) Draw five different connected, simple undirected graphs with four vertices. 6. An undirected graph is called complete if every vertex shares an edge with every other ...The n vertex graph with the maximal number of edges that is still disconnected is a Kn−1. a complete graph Kn−1 with n−1 vertices has (n−1)/2edges, so (n−1)(n−2)/2 edges. Adding any possible edge must connect the graph, so the minimum number of edges needed to guarantee connectivity for an n vertex graph is ((n−1)(n−2)/2) + 1Approach: We will import the required module networkx. Then we will create a graph object using networkx.complete_graph (n). Where n specifies n number of nodes. For realizing graph, we will use networkx.draw (G, node_color = ’green’, node_size=1500) The node_color and node_size arguments specify the color and size of graph nodes.Follow the given steps to solve the problem: Create a recursive function that takes the graph, current index, number of vertices, and color array. If the current index is equal to the number of vertices. Print the color configuration in the color array. Assign a color to a vertex from the range (1 to m). For every assigned color, check if the ...A Spanning Tree (ST) of a connected undirected weighted graph G is a subgraph of G that is a tree and connects (spans) all vertices of G. A graph G can have many STs (see this or this), each with different total weight (the sum of edge weights in the ST).A Min(imum) Spanning Tree (MST) of G is an ST of G that has the smallest total weight among the various STs.2. In the graph given in question 1, what is the minimum possible weight of a path P from vertex 1 to vertex 2 in this graph such that P contains at most 3 edges? (A) 7 (B) 8 (C) 9 (D) 10. Answer (B) Path: 1 -> 0 -> 4 -> 2 Weight: 1 + 4 + 3. 3. The degree sequence of a simple graph is the sequence of the degrees of the nodes in the graph in ...Undirected Graph. The undirected graph is also referred to as the bidirectional. It is a set of objects (also called vertices or nodes), which are connected together. Here the edges will be bidirectional. The two nodes are connected with a line, and this line is known as an edge. The undirected graph will be represented as G = (N, E). Complexity analysis. Assume that graph is connected. Depth-first search visits every vertex in the graph and checks every edge its edge. Therefore, DFS complexity is O (V + E). As it was mentioned before, if an adjacency matrix is used for a graph representation, then all edges, adjacent to a vertex can't be found efficiently, that results in O ...connected. Given a connected, undirected graph, we might want to identify a subset of the edges that form a tree, while “touching” all the vertices. We call such a tree a spanning tree. Deﬁnition 18.1. For a connected undirected graph G = (V;E), a spanning tree is a tree T = (V;E 0) with E E.Data analysis is a crucial aspect of making informed decisions in various industries. With the increasing availability of data in today’s digital age, it has become essential for businesses and individuals to effectively analyze and interpr...This set of Discrete Mathematics Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Spanning Trees”. 1. Spanning trees have a special class of depth-first search trees named _________ a) Euclidean minimum spanning trees b) Tremaux trees c) Complete bipartite graphs d) Decision trees 2. The adjacency matrix of a complete graph contains all ones except along the diagonal where there are only zeros. The adjacency matrix of an empty graph is a zero matrix. Properties Spectrum. The adjacency matrix of an undirected simple graph is symmetric, and therefore has a complete set of real eigenvalues and an orthogonal eigenvector basis.17.1. DIRECTED GRAPHS, UNDIRECTED GRAPHS, WEIGHTED GRAPHS 743 Proposition 17.1. Let G =(V,E) be any undirected graph with m vertices, n edges, and c connected com-ponents. For any orientation of G, if B is the in-cidence matrix of the oriented graph G, then c = dim(Ker(B>)), and B has rank m c. Furthermore,In the maximum independent set problem, the input is an undirected graph, and the output is a maximum independent set in the graph. ... given an undirected graph, how many independent sets it contains. This problem is intractable, namely, it is ♯P-complete, already on graphs with maximal degree three. It is further known that, ...The complete graph of 4 vertices is of course the smallest graph with chromatic number bigger than three: sage: for g in graphs (): ... Undirected graph. A graph is a set of vertices connected by edges. See the Wikipedia article Graph_(mathematics) for more information.A minimum spanning tree (MST) or minimum weight spanning tree for a weighted, connected, undirected graph is a spanning tree with a weight less than or equal to the weight of every other spanning tree. To learn more about Minimum Spanning Tree, refer to this article.. Introduction to Kruskal’s Algorithm: Here we will discuss Kruskal’s …The graph containing a maximum number of edges in an n-node undirected graph without self-loops is a complete graph. The number of edges incomplete graph with n-node, k n is \(\frac{n(n-1)}{2}\). Question 11.An interval on a graph is the number between any two consecutive numbers on the axis of the graph. If one of the numbers on the axis is 50, and the next number is 60, the interval is 10. The interval remains the same throughout the graph.Complexity analysis. Assume that graph is connected. Depth-first search visits every vertex in the graph and checks every edge its edge. Therefore, DFS complexity is O (V + E). As it was mentioned before, if an adjacency matrix is used for a graph representation, then all edges, adjacent to a vertex can't be found efficiently, that results in O .... Since the graph is complete, any permutation starting with a fDownload scientific diagram | The complete graph K4. from publication Graphs help to illustrate relationships between groups of data by plotting values alongside one another for easy comparison. For example, you might have sales figures from four key departments in your company. By entering the department nam... A complete graph is an undirected graph in which every p A simpler answer without binomials: A complete graph means that every vertex is connected with every other vertex. If you take one vertex of your graph, you therefore have n − 1 n − 1 outgoing edges from that particular vertex. Now, you have n n vertices in total, so you might be tempted to say that there are n(n − 1) n ( n − 1) edges ... undirected graph. Definition: A graph whose ed...

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